Before going abroad, you should check your vaccination coverage. You should talk to your doctor before your departure to benefit from personalized advice. Focus on the vaccines to do before leaving on a trip.
Travel abroad vaccines: compulsory and recommended vaccines
First of all, there are two criteria for vaccinations: on the one hand compulsory vaccines and on the other hand recommended vaccines.
- The first concern the vaccines required to be able to enter the territory. Indeed, without these vaccines entry into certain countries may be refused. For example, the vaccine against yellow fever is compulsory for a trip to an intertropical zone of Africa or South America, likewise, the vaccine against meningococcal meningitis is compulsory for pilgrims going to Mecca.
- The second relate to the real risks incurred by the traveler during his stay depending on the health situation of the country, the conditions and duration of the stay and the specific characteristics of the traveler (age, vaccination status, pregnancy, immunosuppression).
Given the time required for the onset of an immune response, it is necessary to be concerned about vaccines at least 2 months before departure.
Travel abroad vaccines: which vaccines depending on the country?
Vaccination against yellow fever
vaccination against yellow fever is required for a stay in the tropics of Africa and South America, even in the absence of administrative duty.
- Vaccine required from one year (possible from 6 months)
- Not recommended during the entire pregnancy (but if the stay or the trip to an endemic area cannot be postponed, vaccination is necessary due to the high lethality disease)
- Vaccine reserved for approved vaccination centers;
- One injection at least 10 days before departure for the primary vaccination, validity: 10 years.
Vaccines against Japanese encephalitis
Vaccination against Japanese encephalitis is recommended for any stay in a risk zone and during the transmission season in certain countries of Asia or Oceania (from Pakistan in the west, to the Philippines in the east ).
- Vaccine available at approved vaccination centers;
- Possible in children from the age of one year (between one and three years: half-dose).
Vaccination against TBE
vaccine against TBE is recommended for any stay in rural areas (or hiking in the forest) in central, eastern and northern Europe, north of central Asia, Japan and China.
- Possible in children from one year (up to 16 years: half-dose during the first injection).
Vaccines against typhoid fever
Vaccination against typhoid fever is recommended for any prolonged stay or in poor conditions in countries where hygiene is poor. The vaccine is particularly recommended for India.
- Children: from 2 years old.
Vaccines against meningococcal meningitis
The vaccine against meningococcal meningitis is recommended according to the news of epidemic areas and is compulsory for people going on pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina;
- It must be more than 10 days old or less than three years old.
Travel abroad vaccines: which vaccines according to the conditions and length of stay
Hepatitis A vaccines
- vaccine Vaccination against hepatitis A is strongly recommended for any type of stay where hygiene is precarious and particularly for travelers carrier of chronic liver disease.
- Can be done from the age of one.
Hepatitis B vaccines
- Apart from the recommendations of the vaccination schedule, vaccine the hepatitis B stays frequent and prolonged in countries with high prevalence;
- In the event of a rapid departure, there is an expedited protocol.
Preventive rabies vaccines
- Frequent or adventurous stays and in isolation in a country at high risk of rabies (especially in Africa, Asia, South America);
- Vaccination does not dispense with a curative treatment which must be implemented as soon as possible in the event of known or suspected exposure.
- Update of flu vaccination according to destination and season for all people recommended in the vaccination schedule, participating in a group trip, especially by cruise ship ;
- And for cabin crew on cruise ships and airplanes, as well as travel industry personnel accompanying groups of travelers.
The recommendations are subject to change depending on the international situation. To be informed of the latest updates, you can consult the website of the World Health Organization, the Institute for Sanitary Surveillance and the Ministry of Health.